CRITICAL REVIEW


 In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many foreign architects of French, German, Austrian origin worked in the Romanian Countries due to the connection administrations of the Romanian Principalities to the European civilization patterns. At the beginning of the 20th century, it became a necessity in Wallachia and Moldavia to build various utility works in order to create the infrastructure and to modernize the towns. It was necessary to build public or private edifices, the Western models being the ones selected. Because of the lack of Romanian specialists, architects and engineers were brought mostly from the German, Austrian or French territories.
    Johann Freywald, architect and engineer that studied in Vienna, settled in Iasi around 1802, having been requested by the city administration. He had two architect-sons: Gustav, who worked mostly in Moldavia, and Julius, who settled down in Bucharest.
    Johann Freywald worked in Iasi and Bucharest, realizing neo-classical constructions with neo-gothic elements. Today, most of these works have perished. (Gabriela Petrescu, 2015)
 


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    BIOGRAPHY


    (Vienna, the end of the eighteenth century - 16.09.1867)

    Academic/specialized studies:
    ? - Architecture and engineering studies in Vienna.

    Professional activity (affiliations, administrative positions, committees):
    1815-1858 - Architect of Bucharest.
     


    PROJECTS


    Finished projects:
    Urbanism projects:
    1815 - During Caragea Voda’s reign, he was in Bucharest, appointed with deepening works of Dambovita;
    1822-1828 - Apponted by the ruler Grigore Ghica with the wood paving of the streets in Bucharest. For this project, he associated with the architect Hartl.
     
    Architecture projects:
    1811 - He built the royal church in Ruginoasa, in neo-classic style, with an oval, central plan, in the garden of which can be found the tombstones of the Cuza family.
    1811 - The Cuza Palace in Ruginoasa (it was initially built by the treasurer Sturdza after the plans of Freywald, in neoclassic style, and during the 1847-1855 timeframe, it was refurbished after the plans of arch. Johann Brandel, with neo-gothic details; the palace came into the Cuza family’s possession in 1862, and it is currently the Al. I. Cuza Memorial Museum);
    1809-1819 - He designs the St. Gheorghe Church in the town Moghiliov-Podolisk, Vinita County, Ukraine, in neoclassic style;
    1816 - Invited to Ioannia by Ali Pasa to build several constructions and bridges.
     
    Restoration projects:
    1803-1806 - The Royal Court, restored in neoclassic style, on the order of the ruler Alexandru Moruzi who appoints him to rebuild the construction;
    1819 - 1820 - He is appointed to repair the four princely bridges, Mogosoaia Bridge (Calea Victoriei), The Outdoors Fair Bridge(Calea Mosilor), Calicilor Bridge (Calea Rahovei) and Serban Voda Bridge (Calea Serban Voda);
    1826 - He signs a contract to repair the Church of the Negru-Voda Monastery in Campulung;
    1832 - Plans for restoring the Roznovanu houses in Iasi after the fire;
    1835 - He repairs the houses of Petrache Cazimir, purchased by Eforia Scoalelor in Iasi to accommodate the Mihailean Academy;
    ? - Johann Freywald had worked for a year at the Neamt Monastery’s restoration.
     
    Unfinished projects
    Architecture projects:
    1819 - Appointed by Alexandru Sutu to design the restoration project for the Royal Palace - destroyed in a fire during Ioan Caragea’s reign - on Mogosoaia Bridge (in the Odeon Theatre area). Project not accomplished due to the 1821 events;
    1833-1837 - He was appointed architect of the Metropolitan of Iasi, making the first plans of Iasi Metropolitan Cathedral.
     
    Engineer activity:
    1821 - Appointed by the ruler Alexandru Sutu, alongside other engineers in the country, to erect a plan of Bucharest. As a marking engineer, Johann Freywald realized plans and estate measurements, one of them being the domain in Potlogi of the proconsul Grigore Brancoveanu;
    1833 - He collaborates on various municipal works with the Russian engineer Nikolai Singurov and the engineer Iosif Raschek, Iasi.

     


    BIBLIOGRAPHY


    Author volumes:
    ANTONESCU, Petre, Mesteri si arhitecti romani in trecut, Academia Romana, Imprimeria nationala, 1947.
    BULEI, Ioan, Lumea romaneasca la 1900, Editura Eminescu, Bucuresti, 1984.
    ION, Narcis Dorin, Elitele și arhitectura rezidentiala in Țarile Romane (sec. XIX-XX), Oscar Print, București, 2011.
    ISPIR, Mihai, Clasicismul in arta romaneasca, Editura Meridiane, Bucuresti, 1894.
    MOLDOVAN, Horia, Iohann Schlatter, cultura occidentala si arhitectura romaneasca (1831-1866), Bucuresti, Simetria, 2014.
    MUCENIC, Cezara, Bucuresti, un veac de arhitectura civila sec. XIX, Editura Silex, Bucuresti, 1997.
    SOCOLESCU, Toma T., Fresca arhitectilor care au lucrat in Romania in epoca moderna, Editura Caligraf, București, 2004.

    Studies in collective volumes:
    MALACOPOL, Viorica, „Date in legatura cu activitatea arhitectilor Freywald”, in Studii si cercetari de istoria artei, seria arta plastica, tom 11, nr. 2, 1964, pp. 325-334.

    Dictionaries:
    TEODORESCU, Sidonia, NICULAE, Raluca, PETRESCU, Gabriela, ȚELEA, Vasile, BIRSAN, Andrei, Dictionar al arhitecturii romanesti moderne (sec. XIX, XX, XXI). Literele D-H - online edition, pdf, 2014, project financed by the Union of Architects in Romania (2014), from the Timbrul Arhitectilor Fund; Bucuresti, 2014 (https://issuu.com/dictionaruar), ISBN: 978-973-0-18271
    CONSTANTIN, Paul, Dicționar universal al arhitectilor, Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1986.

    Webgraphy:
    http://www.zf.ro/ziarul-de-duminica/bucurestiul-neogotic-ii-de-emanuel-badescu-galerie-foto-11741207
    http://www.arhivadearhitectura.ro